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Science

Butyrin (tri-butyrate)

Butyrin is a triglyceride of short-chain fatty acid, butyrate (sometimes called butyric acid or butanoic acid). Butyrin composes 3 to 4% of butter and contains three butyrate molecules. Short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate) are produced in the intestine during fiber digestion and carbohydrates.

Butyrate is the main source of energy for epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon (colonocytes).

Butyrate contributes to the proper functioning of intestinal cells, improve the transit and regulate the intestinal microbiota.

What are the short-chain fatty acids (AGCC)?

90 -95% of short-chain fatty acids present in the colon are acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3) and butyric acid (C4). These are "postbiotic" metabolites derived from the microbiota.

Indeed, these fatty acids are produced in the intestine during the digestion of the fibers and carbohydrates.

The colon epithelium consumes almost entirely butyric acid, the main source of energy of colonocytes.

Acetic acid and propionic acid pass into the blood (door vein) and are used as precursors in the liver or peripheral tissues for gluconneogenesis and hepatic lipogenesis.

Short-chain fatty acids (AGCC): Microbiota metabolites

The bacteria that colonize the digestive tract, especially the colon, feed on the prebiotics we consume to reproduce. Prebiotics are usually composed of short chain (oligosaccharides and polysaccharides) sugars, but which are essential to the intestinal microbiota.

Indeed, these fibers are transformed by the microbiota in AGCC. Among them, thebutyrateplays a key role for intestinal physiology because it is one of the preferred carbon sources of the colon epithelial cells. No butyrate, these cells would be in energetic "deficiency". (Learn more about the clinical effects of butyrate)

It is an example of the symbiosis between the human and the bacteria: the first supplies to its fiber bacteria which, in exchange, transform them into carbon source for epithelial cells. (Butterfly 1999)

What bacteria transform butyrate fibers?

Several bacteria transforming butyrate fibers have been identified: Anaerostipes spp. (A, L), Catus Catus (A), Eubactterium Rectal (a), Eubacterium Hallii (A, L), Faithibacterium Prausnitzii (a), Roseburia spp. (A) (Canani 2011, KOH 2016)

What is the relationship between butyrate and microbiota? How to increase his butyrate rate?

The CGCCs are produced during the colonic fermentation by the bacteria of cellulosic residues and incompletely digested starch. The amount of AGCC manufactured by this fermentation process is therefore dependent on the type of supply of individuals and the bacterial pool maintained within the colon.

Low prebiotic consumption or taking antibiotics decreases the production of GACC, especially butyrate.

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Faq

A QUESTION ?

  • Is it a safe product?

    Butyric acid being a metabolite of fiber fermentation is considered very safe.
    In a clinical study with patients with Crohn's disease, taking for 8 weeks of twice 2 grams per day (4 g) was well tolerated and considered safe.

    Di Sabatino A, Morera R, Ciccocioppo R, Cazzola P, Gotti S, Tinozzi FP, et al. Oral Butyrate for Mildly to Moderately Active Crohn's Disease. Pharmacol Theher 2005; 22 (9): 789-94.

  • Why take butycaps during a meal?

    Butycaps contains butyrin triglycerides (tributyrine) and lipids for microencapsulation. It is therefore preferable to take butycaps during a meal to facilitate digestion (production of bile and pancreatic enzymes) and the hydrolysis of fatty acid triglycerides (butyric acid).

  • What is the difference between butyrate and probiotics or prebiotics?

    Prebiotics are non-digestible substances that serve as a substrate to the flora of the colon. (oligosaccharides and short chain polysaccharides)

    Probiotics are living microorganisms (bacteria or yeasts). We are talking about intestinal flora (or intestinal microbiota), ie all the microorganisms (arched, bacteria, eukaryotes) which are in the digestive tract. This therefore includes the bacteria of the intestine and those of the stomach. The intestinal flora is a good example of mutualism: cooperation between different kinds of organisms involving an advantage for everyone. Butyric acid (butyrate) is produced by the intestinal microbiota from the fibers. Its production is amplified by prebiotic agents (soluble fibers).

  • Does Butycaps contain lactose?

    Butycaps does not contain lactose.

  • What is the difference between butyrate and glutamine?

    Glutamine is an amino acid that acts as a very important nutrient for various organs and tissues, such as muscles, immune cells and intestinal cells.

    It is said that it is an essential amino acid under certain conditions: in case of metabolic stress, for example, its consumption is very high by the cells of the immune system. This is why, in these situations, it is advisable to provide a glutamine supplement.

    Glutamine is also interesting for the intestine because when there is a metabolic stress, some organs consume glutamine in large quantities and it creates a deficit at the intestinal level, which causes an increase in intestinal permeability.

    The fundamental difference is that butyrate is a specific nutrient of the intestine, while glutamine is a nutrient of the intestine but also many other organs and fabrics.

    Therefore, so that glutamine has an effect on the intestine, very large quantities are necessary.

    On the other hand, butyrate and glutamine are more synergistic than competitors.

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